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Logical Consistency

In logical consistency questions, you are given a main statement followed by four statements. You would have to pick a combination of two of these four statements, which are logically correct and are consistent with the main statement given. Consider the following example:

R is in the room when P is in the hotel.

Can R be in the room when P is not in the hotel?

YES

The condition given in the first statement is that if P is in the hotel then R definitely has to be in the room.

R can be in the room otherwise also i.e. when P is not in the hotel.

The valid conclusions you can make about the main statement given are:
(a) P is in the hotel; R is in the room (straight logic)

(b) R is not in the room, P is not in the hotel (straight negation)

The statement above is also correct because, at any given point of time R and P have two possible positions each i.e. R can be in the room or outside.

P can be in the hotel or outside

When R is not in the room; P has two options, of either being in the hotel or outside. However it can be said definitely that P is not in the hotel because if P is in the hotel than R would be in the room, but R is outside, so P has to be outside. There are some standard types of questions in this category.

I. If type

II. Either – or type

III. Whenever – type

IV. May-be type

A simple logical can be followed in all these questions. Every main statement will have two parts X and Y. For example in the statement

R is in the room, when P is in the hotel.

X is ‘P is in the hotel’.

Y is ‘R is in the room’.

If the condition is when X then Y the valid conclusion would be when not Y then not x.
If X happens then Y will Happen

Now if Y happened it does not necessarily mean that X has also happened. Keep this point in mind and the exercises will be easy.

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