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Brain Teaser # 3

Four friends - Mallika, Rakhi, Kashmira and Mahek were comparing the number of sheep that they owned.
It was found that Kashmira had ten more sheep than Mahek. If Mallika gave one-third to Rakhi, and Rakhi gave a quarter of what he then held to Kashmira, who then passed on a fifth of his holding to Mahek, they would all have an equal number of sheep.
How many sheep did Mahek possess? 

a) 45 b)55 c)65 d)50 e)35

Brain Teaser #2

A contractor had employed 100 labourers for a flyover construction task. He did not allow any woman to work without her husband. Also, atleast half the men working came with their wives. He paid five rupees per day to each man, four ruppes to each woman and one rupee to each child. He gave out 200 rupees every evening.
How many men were working with the constructor?

a) 20  b)24  c)52  d)72  e)16        



An assumption is defined as something which is assumed, supposed or taken for granted. In real life, when someone says something, he does not put everything into words. He leaves a lot of things unsaid, which he takes for granted, which may be defined as an assumption. Implicit means hidden; therefore Implicit Assumptions are those assumptions which are hidden. A typical question on implicit assumptions goes like this:

Directions: In each of the questions below, a statement is followed by two assumptions numbered I and II.An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Mark answer 1 if the assumption I is implicit;       Mark 2 if only assumption II is implicit;
Mark 3 if either I or II is implicit;                            Mark 4 if neither I nor II is implicit
and Mark 5 if both I and II are implicit.

Statement: “In my opinion, you should get training from an experienced person in order to succeed in life”, X to Y.
Assumptions:    I.Y had asked for advice from X.
    II. Experienced persons are better able to guide a person to the path of success.

The correct answer to the question is 2 i.e. only II is implicit but not I. I is not an implicit assumption because there are many examples in real life when we get advice from a person which we have not asked for. So in this light, I is not definitely valid. But II certainly follows from the statement because if it had not been so, X would not have advised Y to get training from an experienced person. Therefore, it is correct to assume that experienced people make better guides.

Statement: “This CD - ROM is meant to help you learn computers without a teacher”. — an ad in a paper.
Assumptions:    I. Everyone may not be able to get help from a teacher.
    II. Computers can be learnt with the help of a CD-ROM.

In the above, both I and II are valid. The CD-ROM intends to teach computers in the absence of a teacher.This means that the absence of a teacher is a distinct possibility for some people.

Therefore I is valid. The advertiser has come out with a CD-ROM on computers, it definitely implies that he feels that computers can be learnt by CD-ROMs. Hence II is also valid.

Statement: Miss Yukta Mookhey of Bombay has won the Miss Universe contest held in Honolulu.
Assumptions:    I. The result of the Miss Universe contest is out.
    II. The Honolulu Government always permits the holding of such contests.

Now,in this example, I is definitely implied, otherwise, how do we come to know that Yukta has won the contest? The validity of II is doubtful because the statement mentions or implies this fact nowhere. The Honolulu Government may be unfavorable towards such ideas, but could have agreed on the contest this time only. So far, nothing can be derived about the attitude of the Honolulu Government on the basis of the main statement. Therefore, II is not 100% justifiable. Hence, it is not a valid assumption.
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